Free Spanish course. Lesson 3.




Free online Spanish course - lesson 3

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Lesson 3: Mi familia. My family.


In this lesson you will learn:

  • how to speak about your family
  • how to introduce other people

Let’s talk about our dearest thing in the world: our family. In order to introduce your family members, you’ll need to know the words “my/his/her/our” in Spanish. Don’t worry, with the help of our dialogues and simple explanations you’ll have any Spanish grammar figured out.

Spanish vocabulary

Vocabulary

In this lesson, we will practice the following vocabulary. Read the words, listen to the audio and remember them:

familia

family

amigo / amiga

male friend / female friend

nombre

name

apellido

surname

madre

mother

padre

father

hermano / hermana

brother / sister

abuelo / abuela

grandfather / grandmother

marido

husband

mujer

wife / woman

hijo / hija

son / daughter

Te presento a…

Let me introduce you to…/ Meet…

Os presento a…

Let me introduce you to…/ Meet…

¿Quién es?

Who is this?

¿Quiénes son?

Who are these (people)?

mexicano / mexicana

Mexican man / Maxican woman

argentino / argentina

Argentinian man / Argentinian woman

Spanish dialogues

Dialogues

Listen carefully to the following Spanish dialogues. They will help you understand this lesson’s vocabulary in the right context:

Spanish text

Text

Read the following text in Spanish. You can check the English translation if you need help. Also, listen to the audio and try to understand everything:

Spanish grammar

Spanish grammar

We will now study the grammar used in this lesson:

Possessive pronouns: my, your, his, our etc.

What are possessive pronouns and why do we need them? These pronouns help us express who the thing belongs to: my friend or your friend. You’ll see that Spanish possessive pronouns “work” almost like English ones. The only difference is that Spanish pronouns also have plural forms. Let’s have a look at them:

SingularPlural
mymimis
your (informal singular)tutus
hissusus
hersusus
ournuestro / nuestranuestros / nuestras
your (informal plural)vuestro / vuestravuestros / vuestras
your (formal)susus
theirsusus

These examples will help you understand how to use the singular and the plural forms:

  • mi amigo (my friend) – mis amigos (my friends)
  • tu hermano (your brother) – tus hermanos (your brothers)

Some pronouns also have feminine forms. Have a look at their endings:

  • nuestro hermano (our brother) – nuestra hermana (our sister)
  • nuestros hermanos (our brothers) – nuestras hermanas (our sisters)

Pay attention to the forms “his/her/their”. All of them are translated as “su / sus”. Thus, the words “su hermano” could mean “his brother”, “her brother” or “their brother” and it’s impossible to know the exact meaning unless you have more context.

The gender of Spanish words

As you already know, Spanish nouns can be of masculine or feminine gender.

Words of masculine gender usually end in “о” or in a consonant: amigo, mar (sea).

Words of feminine gender usually end in “a“: amiga, or one of the following endings: -ión, -tad, -dad, -d, -zónо: revolución (revolution), verdad (truth). There are exceptions that you will have to memorise. So far, the only word that you have to remember separately is “nombre” (name) – masculine.

The words “este / esta / estos / estas”

To introduce other people, we usually use “This is / These are”. In Spanish, apart from singular and plural, you also have to differentiate between masculine and feminine:

  • Este es mi amigo (This is my male friend) – masculine singular
  • Esta es mi amiga (This is my female friend) – feminine singular
  • Estos son mis amigos (These are my friends, male or mixed) – masculine plural
  • Estas son mis amigas (These are my female friends) – feminine plural

ABOUT SPANISH CULTURE
Why do they have some many names and surnames?


In most Hispanic countries a person has one or several names and two surnames. The names can be simple (e.g. Manuel) or compound (e.g. José Antonio). A newly born child gets two surnames: father’s first surname + mother’s first surname. In this way we get the name José Antonio Gonzalez García, in which José Antonio is a compound name, Gonzalez is the father’s first surname, and García is the mother’s first surname. On getting married a woman never takes her husband’s surname.

Let me introduce you to… / Meet…

Let’s pay attention to the phrase that came across in the dialogues: Te presento a… / Os presento a… Let’s see all the possible ways of using this phrase:

  • Te presento a mi amigo. – Let me introduce my friend to you (informal singular).
  • Os presento a mi amigo. – Let me introduce my friend to you (informal plural).
  • Le presento a mi amigo. – Let me introduce my friend to you (formal singular).
  • Les presento a mi amigo. – Let me introduce my friend to you (formal plural).

Spanish test

Test

Check if you know this lesson:

1. Fill the gaps: _____ es mi amigo y _____ es mi mujer
esta, este
estos, estas
este, esta

2. How to say “Meet my female friends” in Spanish?
Os presento a mi amiga.
Te presento a mis amigas.
Le presento a mis amigos.

3. Silvia y Laura _____ españolas.
son
es
soy

4. The word “mar” (sea) is of _____ gender.
neuter
feminine
masculine

5. Fill the gaps: _____ madre, ______ hermano, ______ hijos
nuestra, nuestro, nuestros
nuestro, nuestra, nuestras
mi, mis, mi


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