Free Spanish course. Lesson 10.




Free online Spanish course - lesson 10

Free Spanish course
Spanish lessons for beginners

Lesson 10: Feliz cumpleaños. Happy birthday.


In this lesson you will learn:

  • to speak about your age and your birthday
  • to say “Happy birthday” to your Spanish friends
  • to say what you are doing at the moment using the gerund

What can be more fun than attending a Spanish birthday party?! Is your birthday coming up soon? Then let us wish you a … ¡feliz cumpleaños!

Spanish vocabulary

Vocabulario

In this lesson, we will practice the following vocabulary. Read the words, listen to the audio and remember them:

año

year

edad

age

cumpleaños

birthday

viejo

old

joven

young

feliz

happy

regalo

present, gift

sorpresa

surprise

guitarra

guitar

bicicleta

bicycle

ropa

clothes

vida

life

coche

car

mundo

world

primero

first

mejor

better, the best

especial

special

tener razón

to be right

estar roto

to be broken

¡Qué suerte!

Lucky you!

¡Cómo pasa el tiempo!

Time flies!

meses:

months:

enero

January

febrero

February

marzo

March

abril

April

mayo

May

junio

June

julio

July

agosto

August

septiembre

September

octubre

October

noviembre

November

diciembre

December

Spanish dialogues

Diálogos

Listen carefully to the following Spanish dialogues. They will help you understand this lesson’s vocabulary in the right context:

Spanish text

Texto

Read the following text in Spanish. You can check the English translation if you need help. Also, listen to the audio and try to understand everything:

Spanish grammar

Gramática

We will now study the grammar used in this lesson:

New verbs: tocar, celebrar, buscar, bailar, cantar, regalar, viajar

All the verbs of this lesson belong to the 1st conjugation. Let’s review their endings in the present tense:

celebrar
(to celebrate)
buscar
(to look for)
bailar
(to dance)
cantar
(to sing)
regalar
(to give a present)
viajar
(to travel)
yo celebroyo buscoyo bailoyo cantoyo regaloyo viajo
tú celebrastú buscastú bailastú cantastú regalastú viajas
él celebraél buscaél bailaél cantaél regalaél viaja
nosotros celebramosnosotros buscamosnosotros bailamosnosotros cantamosnosotros regalamosnosotros viajamos
vosotros celebráisvosotros buscáisvosotros bailáisvosotros cantáisvosotros regaláisvosotros viajáis
ellos celebranellos buscanellos bailanellos cantanellos regalanellos viajan

Two verbs to say “to play” in Spanish: tocar and jugar

In Spanish, there are two verbs that are translated into English as “to play”: tocar (to play a musical instrument) and jugar (to play games including sport games). The verb “jugar” has special forms that you have to remember:

jugar
(to play games)
tocar
(to play an instrument)
yo juegoyo toco
tú juegastú tocas
él juegaél toca
nosotros jugamosnosotros tocamos
vosotros jugáisvosotros tocáis
ellos jueganellos tocan

Let’s see some examples with these verbs:

tocar – to play an instrument

  • Me gusta tocar la guitarra. – I like to play the guitar.
  • Toco la guitarra muy bien. – I play the guitar very well.
  • ¿Qué música tocas? – What music are you playing?

jugar – to play games

  • ¿Quieres jugar al fútbol? – Do you want to play football?
  • Manuel juega al fútbol todos los días. – Manuel plays football every day.
  • Los niños juegan en el parque. – Children play at the park.

Attention!
Which pronouns to use with the verb “regalar


We already know the forms of the pronouns when they are used as an indirect object (me, te, le и т.д.). Pay attention to how we use these pronouns with the verb “regalar”. When we have an infinitive, the pronoun is attached to it at the end:

  • Esta es mi amiga. Le regalo un libro. – This is my friend. I give her a book.
  • ¿Qué me vas a regalar? – What are you going to give me?
  • Quiero regalarte un libro. – I want to give you a book.

How to say what we are doing at this moment

One of the main difficulties of Spanish is the amount of verb forms. Today, we are going to see the Spanish “gerund” (gerundio). The construction estar + gerund expresses an action, which is being performed at this very moment. It’s an equivalent of the Present Continuous in English: I’m dancing = Estoy bailando. Let’s see how the Spanish gerund is formed:

  • verbs ending in -ar: -ando (hablando, trabajando, comprando)
  • verbs ending in -er /-ir: -iendo (comiendo, entendiendo, escribiendo)

Pay special attention to verbs that are irregular in the present tense. Their gerund will have the same kind of “irregularity”:

  • dormir –> durmiendo
  • preferir –> prefiriendo
  • decir –> diciendo

When the root of a verb finishes in a vowel, the verb gets the ending -yendo. Memorize these forms:

  • Oir –> Oyendo
  • leer –> leyendo

So, the construction estar + gerund is used to express a continuous action at the moment of speech. Let’s have a look at the examples:

  • Laura está comiendo. – Laura is having lunch.
  • ¿Qué está haciendo? – What are you doing?
  • No puedo hablar porque estoy trabajando. – I can’t speak because I’m working.

Numbers 20-100 in Spanish

We already know the first 20 numbers in Spanish. Let’s continue our list:

Numbers:EnglishSpanish
20twentyveinte
21twenty-oneveintiuno
22twenty-twoveintidós
23twenty-threeveintitrés
24twenty-fourveinticuatro
25twenty-fiveveinticinco
26twenty-sixveintiséis
27twenty-sevenveintisiete
28twenty-eightveintiocho
29twenty-nineveintinueve
30thirtytreinta
31thirty-onetreinta y uno
32thirty-twotreinta y dos
40fortycuarenta
50fiftycincuenta
60sixtysesenta
70seventysetenta
80eightyochenta
90ninetynoventa
100one hundredcien

Notice that the numbers 21-29 are one single word while the numbers 30-100 are two words connected with the conjunction “y”:

  • 23: veintitres
  • 33: treinta y tres
  • 43: cuarenta y tres

Attention!
How to use the verb “tener” to speak about your age


To speak about age in Spanish, we use the verb “tener”. So, instead of saying “I’m 30 years old” in Spanish we literally say “I have 30 years old”:

  • Tengo 35 años. – I’m 35 years old.
  • Juan tiene 20 años. – Juan is 20 years old.

Common mistake
Primer / primero / primera


This mistake is very typical for a Spanish learner: Este es mi primero trabajo (correct version: Este es mi primer trabajo). Remember that the word “primero” can be used as an adverb (meaning “first of all/at first”) and as an adjective (meaning “first”). The adverb “primero” is invariable, while the adjective “primero” can change its ending depending on the gender and number:

  • Primero tenemos que comprar un regalo. – First, we have to buy a present.
  • Primero cenamos y luego vamos a bailar. – First we’ll have dinner, and then we’ll go dancing.
  • Es mi primer coche. – This is my first car (when “primero” stands before a masculine noun it loses its ending: primer coche, and not “primero coche”).
  • Me gusta mi primera guitarra. – I like my first guitar.
  • Leo las primeras palabras. – I read the first words.

Spanish test

Ejercicio

Let’s check how well you know this lesson:

1. Quiero ____ una guitarra.
te regalar
te regalo
regalarte

2. Mi cumpleaños es ___ 3 ___ agosto.
la, en
el, de
en, de

3. ¿Cuántos años ____ tu hermana?
tiene
hay
es

4. Mañana vamos a ____ al fútbol.
hacer
tocar
jugar

5. Es mi _____ hija.
primera
primero
primer


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